Geography: At 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the world's 19th-largest country. It mostly lies between latitudes 41° and 52°N (a small area is north of 52°), and longitudes 87° and 120°E. Mongolia's geography is very diverse, including high mountains. The Mongol Altai Nuruu is permanently snowcapped, and their highest peak, Tavanbogd Uul (4374m/14,350ft), has a magnificent glacier that towers over Mongolia, Russia and China. Others peaks are Otgon Tenger: 4021m and Mukh Saridag: 3461m. Mongolia's geography is including boundless steppes, vast valleys, rivers (4000, rich in fish), lakes (16 large lakes) and the Gobi desert. The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert. Most of the rest of Mongolia is grassland, home to Mongolia's famed takhi horses, which Genghis Khan used so successfully in his wars of conquest.

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
Highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Climate: Known as the 'Land of Blue Skies', it has over 260 sunny days each year. The winter is long and cold with temperatures often well below -30° Centigrade. Despite these temperatures, the blue winter sky makes it often feel warmer. There is very little snowfall but it and ice can remain for several weeks at a time. The rainy season is from July to September, but the showers are often brief. The summer is a very pleasant time because, although temperatures can reach +40° Centigrade, the air is very dry. Summer evenings can be cool because of Mongolia's high altitude. However, July and August are the two wettest months of the year. The season lasting from November to March is cold. The best time to visit the Gobi is June or September as temperatures aren't so hot then.